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History



  • History

    History of the Kingdom/Sultanate a. Prince Mangkubumi, Founder of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate The history of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate is inseparable from the figure of Prince Mangkubumi. Born with the name of Raden Mas Sujono, Prince Mangkubumi is the younger brother of Susuhunan Paku Buwono II, the Sunan (king) of Mataram. Prince Mangkubumi began to be highly estimated among Mataram nobility following his success in quelling the rebellion of Raden Mas Said (Prince Sambar Nyowo), the ruler of Sukawati (now Sragen, Central Java Province). The sunan, who was actually used for political interests by VOC (Vereenigde Oost-indische Compagnie) in command of Governor General van Imhof, did not keep his word after promising to give Sukawati to anyone who could exterminate Raden Mas Said. It made Prince Mangkubumi turn to Raden Mas Said and fight Sunan Paku Buwono II, who had allied himself with the VOC. Prince Mangkubumi, the ... Read more »

  • List of Monarchs and Reigning Periods

    Below is the list of Sultans of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate. Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I (Prince Mangkubumi) (1755-1792) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono II also known as Sultan Sepuh (1792-1812) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono III also known as Sultan Raja (1812-1814) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IV also known as Sultan Seda Ing Pesiyar (1814-1823) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono V (1823-1855) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono VI (1855-1877) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono VII also known as Sultan Sugih (1877-1921) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono VIII (1921-1939) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX (1940-1988) Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X (KGPH Mangkubumi) (1989 – present) Read more »

  • System of Government

    At the beginning, the system of government in Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate consisted of two divisions, namely Parentah Lebet (internal affairs) or Parentah Ageng Karaton and Parentah Njawi (external affairs) or Parentah Nagari. The sultan topped both divisions. On everyday work, he was aided by a pepatih dalem (prime minister). In the early period each structure had four Kanayakan (departments). Parentah Lebet, thus, consisted of: Kanayakan Keparak Kiwo (handling building maintenance) Kanayakan Keparak Tengen (handling general works) Kanayakan Gedhong Kiwo (handling the income) Kanayakan Gedhong Tengen (handling the finance) As for Parentah Njawi, it comprises: Kanayakan Siti Sewu (handling land and property matters) Kanayakan Bumijo (handling government political affairs) Kanayakan Panumping Kanayakan Numbak Anyar Kanayakan Panumping and Numbak Anyar handled the defense affairs. Every kanayakan was helmed by a Bupati ... Read more »

  • Realm

    The early territory of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate consisted of three layers: Nagari Ngayogyakarta (capital), Nagara Agung (principal area), and Manca Nagara (outer area). The entire realm of Nagari Yogyakarta and Negara Agung spanned 309.86 km2 while Manca Negara extended to 198.48 km2. There was an “additional” territory from Danurejo I in Banyumas as wide as 9.35 km2. Below are the details of the territorial division in each layer. Nagari Ngayogyakarta realm, including: 1. Old City of Yogyakarta (between Code River and Winongo River). 2. Surrounding areas with Pathok Negara Mosques as the bordering marks. Nagara Agung realm, including: 1. Siti Ageng Mlaya Kusuma area (Siti Ageng area, i.e. areas in between Pajang and Demak. The eastern boundary that separated the sultanate from Surakarta Hadiningrat Sunanate, however, remains unclear at some points). 2. Siti Bumijo area (Kedu area, from Progo River to Mount ... Read more »

  • Social Culture and Religion

    a. Culture The culture of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate came from a harmonization of traditions, belief, art, view of life, and education. The architecture of the royal palace, for instance, was influenced by the concept of Raja Gung Binathara (a great king that is honored like a god), which was the people’s view of life and part of the system of belief (i.e. worship to god). Moral values were also spread using cultural means. Puppet stories in either wayang kulit (leather puppet) or wayang orang (human puppet), contained philosophies of life, of power, and of traditions. Besides, tembang (sung poetry) or gendhing (melody of gamelan) as another form of culture were often used to communicate knowledge and give counsels. Language also played an important role in the society, i.e. as rank identifier. One had to use a language based on the social ranks. Javanese language is hierarchic, consisting of Ngoko (low Javanese), Krama ... Read more »