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Traditional Constitution and Laws

Angger Pradata Akir

Customary law is a recognized source of law within jurisdictions of the civil law tradition, inferior to both statutes and regulations. In the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate there is called Angger Pradata Akir, the king’s law for Abdi Dalem in Palatial environment. It has been applied since the 17th century (in the reign of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I). However, this law has not yet recognized such the divisions as in public or civil law as well as material or formal law as in legal science in present.

Particularly the specific object of Angger Pradata Akir was Pamongpraja (Sultanate legal employees), such as Tumenggung (Head of District), Bupati (Regent), and Mantri (Minister) in the the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate territory. This law was created by Sultan’s order as supreme leader in an independent region of Indonesian legislative assembly.

When Angger Pradata Akir has been organized, hierarchical structure and codification in the Sultanate were not quite applied. The cohesion and authority of each rule were not confirmed whether hierarchically Angger Pradata Akir was higher than other regulations, such as Nawala Pradata or it was the highest at that time.

Looking at the entire contents of Angger Pradata Akir, it describes no obvious classification as there are no adequate criteria. It might be a material law because its incumbency of legal subjects and formal law which contains the procedures court. In addition, it also has regulated aspects of public law as well as aspects of civil law. Thus, it has not applied any divisions or legal classification as there were no any specific classifications in Angger Pradata Akir. Nevertheless, Angger Pradata Akir was believed as the rules which control the actions, obligations, and rights of palatial employees in performing their duties to serve the people.

Since the mid-19th century, the Dutch East Indies colonial government issued a wide range of policies and colonial rule to replace the local legal system. With the release of the Dutch East Indies government regulations, Angger Pradata Akir was no longer effective. However, to avoid the vacuum system of law, then all the habits or customs that have been arranged in Angger Pradata Akir for the time being can still be used temporarily.

Nawala Pradata Dalem

Some main contents of Nawala Pradata Dalem are the law of debts, lending, mortgage, and others, including how to prosecute someone doing something bad, such as stealing, robbing, murder, gambling, and other criminality. Beside those, marital problems and people who get in fight are also processed with Nawala Pradata Dalem.

Angger Sadasa

Angger Sadasa contains regulations on rural land in tax or pledged to foreign people (Dutch and Chinese) as well as to Javanese people. This law also regulates the level of rank which should be considered when submitting a case to court.

Angger Ageng

Angger Ageng regulates the judicial system between the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate, for example the suing between abdi dalem (courtiers) of Yogyakarta Sultanate with Surakarta Sunanate in the property rights, debt, mortgage and others.

Angger Gunung

Angger Gunung controls policies for people who founded gambling site, illegal coffee shop, opium, illegal bird nest shop, counterfeit drugs, illegal weapons (spear, Keris, rifle, etc.), fake jewelry, and other similar cases.

Angger Aru Biru

Angger Aru Biru contains court regulations for people who stand in government way. For example, those who create the obstacles in the middle of road, break up the harmony, or some conflict over village land cases.

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